Muddy the Waters – Idiom, Meaning, and Origin

Photo of author

Candace Osmond

Candace Osmond studied Advanced Writing & Editing Essentials at MHC. She’s been an International and USA TODAY Bestselling Author for over a decade. And she’s worked as an Editor for several mid-sized publications. Candace has a keen eye for content editing and a high degree of expertise in Fiction.

Muddy the waters is an idiom that means creating confusion about something. It could be as simple as a take-out order or as complicated as instructions given by your boss. Idioms like this are popular sayings that aren’t meant to be literal. They play such a huge role in the English language in terms of expression, giving us a way to convey complex ideas in a simple way.

If you’re wondering how to properly use this expression, I’ll provide a thorough breakdown of the idiom muddy the waters by explaining its origin, various meanings, different applications in context, related terms, and more.

So read on if you wish to learn how to employ this phrase accurately in both spoken and written communication. I’ve even got a little quiz at the end for you!

Muddy the Waters – Idiom Meaning and Origin

What Does the Idiom Muddy the Waters Mean?

The idiom muddy the waters means to create confusion or make a situation more complex and difficult to understand than it needs to be. We mainly use this expression when someone’s actions or words unnecessarily complicate matters.

The Collins Dictionary says that “if someone or something muddies the waters, they cause a situation or issue to seem less clear and less easy to understand.” Some sources say it’s an intentional act, but others claim it can be unintentional. I think it’s all about the context.

Regardless, it’s a great way to describe how clarity is being obscured—kind of like how stirring up mud in a clear stream would make the water murky.

Literal Meaning

The literal meaning of muddy the waters describes the act of disturbing the sediment in a body of water, which ends in a cloudy, murky, and unclear state.

Figurative Meaning

The figurative meaning of muddy the waters is to create confusion, obfuscate the truth, or complicate a situation. It’s used to describe actions or words that make understanding or resolving an issue more complex. In this metaphorical context, the verb muddy means to confuse, and the noun waters represents the information of the situation.

Are There Variations of the Idiom?

Yes! Here are some variations of the idiom muddy the waters:

  • Muddying the waters
  • Have muddied the waters
  • The waters have been muddied
  • Don’t muddy the waters
  • The situation was further muddied
  • The issue has become muddied
  • The discussion was muddied
  • This only serves to muddy the waters.

I’ve also heard some people say dirty the waters and muck up the waters, but they all boil down to the same intent.

How Is Muddy the Waters Commonly Used in Context?

Seeing how muddy the waters can be used in different situations can help you grasp its full meaning and nuance.

What Are the Different Ways to Use Muddy the Waters?

  • During some kind of debate: Emori tried to muddy the waters during the important meeting with irrelevant facts just to steer the attention away from his mistakes.
  • In business: Releasing incomplete information about the product could muddy the waters for our investors.
  • When you’re in an argument: I almost got to the bottom of it until he jumped in and muddied the waters with accusations.

Where Can You Find Examples of Muddy the Waters?

This idiom can be found just about everywhere. One of the more notable uses of it is the stage name for the famous blues musician Muddy Waters. But you can find the phrase used in news and media, too, like the examples below.

However, incomplete or incorrect data can also muddy the waters, obscuring important nuances within communities, ignoring important factors such as socioeconomic realities, and creating false senses of panic or safety, not to mention other harms such as needlessly exposing private information. (The Harvard Business Review)

Not to muddy the waters, but within each of these categories are vegetables whose seeds you plant directly in the garden, and those that require so long a growing season that you need to purchase transplants (seedlings) for planting. (The Minot Daily News)

What Are Some Tips for Using Muddy the Waters Effectively?

  • Use it when describing a situation where clarity is clearly being obstructed, whether intentional or not.
  • It’s often used in a negative context. People don’t usually overcomplicate things for the better.
  • Ensure that the context involves complexity or confusion.

What Is the Origin of the Idiom Muddy the Waters?

Muddy the Waters Ngram 1
Muddy the waters usage trend.

The idiom muddy the waters came into use in the 1600s. Some sources claim that it originates from an action’s literal description, referencing the process of making clear water opaque by stirring sediment. Its earliest literal use occurred in John Brinsley’s 1617 Aesop’s Fables translation, depicting a lamb accused of muddying a spring.

Over time, this idiom adopted a figurative meaning, symbolizing the act of causing confusion or obscuring clarity. The earliest known example of this use can be traced back to 1633’s “A Fresh Suit Against Human Ceremonies in God’s Worship” by the Puritan cleric William Ames. In this work, the phrase was used as “he mudds the water, and so would mislead the simple.”

Though the idiom’s first citation in the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1653, it is likely that the figurative usage was prevalent much earlier. The essence of the phrase is also reflected in a Chinese proverb, “muddy waters make it easy to catch fish,” which communicates the idea of exploiting chaos or crisis for personal benefit.

What Are Some Related Terms to Muddy the Waters?

I always say that context is everything, but so are alternative terms and phrases. These create a well-rounded understanding of certain idioms, like muddy the waters.

Muddy the Waters – Idiom Meaning and Origin 2


  • Complicate matters
  • Make something unclear
  • Confuse the issue
  • Stir up trouble
  • Cloud the issue
  • Add confusion
  • Obscure the truth
  • Make waves
  • Throw a spanner in the works
  • Stir the pot

Related Terms and Phrases

  • Throw a wrench in the works
  • Cloud the issue
  • Obfuscation
  • Misdirection
  • Uncertainty
  • Ambiguity
  • Distortion
  • Deception
  • Complication
  • Manipulation


  • Clear the air
  • Set the record straight
  • Shed light on
  • Illuminating the issue
  • Make plain
  • Simplify
  • Clarify
  • Elucidate
  • Straighten out
  • Unravel

Misinterpretation or Misuses

Some people might mistakenly use muddy the waters to refer to physically dirty water, missing its idiomatic meaning of creating confusion or complexity. So, essentially, if you don’t use it correctly, you could muddy the waters about the meaning of muddy the waters.

Muddy the Waters: Test Your Knowledge!

Muddy the Waters: Test Your Knowledge!

Choose the correct answer.

Is muddy the waters a verb or noun?
What does muddy the waters mean?
In which situation might you use the idiom muddy the waters?
Start Over

What Have We Learned About Muddy the Waters?

We’ve explored the idiom muddy the waters, delving into its origins, meanings, and applications. We’ve seen how this expression, which metaphorically highlights the act of creating confusion, enriches English language communication. As with other idioms, muddy the waters demonstrates how language can concisely encapsulate complex ideas.

With the insights gained, you are now better equipped to utilize this idiom effectively in various contexts. Continue embracing the richness and diversity of idioms in your language journey. If you liked this one, check out my other idiomatic guides on our site!