Refuse and refuse are two words that are spelled identically but are pronounced differently and have different meanings, which makes them heteronyms. These word pairs are often misused words. Heteronyms exist because of our ever-changing English language, and these words with the same spelling and different pronunciation and meaning are a challenge for those who wish to learn to speak English. It can be difficult to learn how to spell different words that look the same but are not pronounced the same, and how to use them in sentences, because they are easily confused. The way the pronunciations and definitions differ can be confusing even to native English speakers when attempting to learn vocabulary correctly. Phonological spelling and spelling rules do not always work, and most people avoid misspelling and misuse by studying vocabulary words from spelling lists, enhancing their literacy skills through spelling practice, and learning words in English by studying a dictionary of the English language. English words are also spelled according to their etymologies rather than their sound. For instance, the word tear meaning a liquid drop that falls from an eye is derived from the Old English word tear, meaning a drop or nectar; tear meaning to pull apart comes from the Old English word tearan, which means to lacerate. Heteronyms are confusing words and are commonly misspelled words because of the confusion that arises from words that are pronounced differently but are spelled the same and come from a different etymology. They are often used in puns and riddles. When reading, it is sometimes difficult to know which word is being used in a sentence and how to pronounce the word phonetically. A spell checker will rarely find this type of mistake in English vocabulary, so do not rely on spell check for these commonly confused words but instead, learn to spell. Even a participant in a spelling bee like the National Spelling Bee will ask for an example of a heteronym in a sentence, so that she understands which word she is to spell by using context clues. Do not confuse heteronyms with homophones, which are two or more words that are pronounced in the same way but are spelled differently and have different meanings like sow and sew; do not confuse them with homonyms, which are words that have the same spelling and pronunciation but different meanings like spring as in spring forth and spring as in the season of the year. Heteronyms are a type of homograph, which is a word that is spelled the same as another word but has a different meaning. We will examine the definitions of the words refuse and refuse, where these words came from, and a few examples of their use in sentences.
Refuse (reFUZE) is a verb that means to object, to decline, to be unwilling to accept or do something, to withhold one’s permission. Related words are refuses, refused, refusing, refusal. The word refuse came into use in the 1300s from the Old French word refuser, which means to reject.
Refuse (REHfuse) is a noun that means trash or garbage. The word refuse is an uncountable or mass noun. The item is a quantity that cannot be counted, so it does not have a plural form and is treated as a singular noun. The word refuse came into use in the 1300s and is derived from Old French word refus, which means trash or something that has been rejected.
If we don’t listen to Gen Z and refuse to help them on a path to success, then we are preventing them from getting entry-level jobs. (The Chatham News + Record)
Gov. Gavin Newsom signed a bill striking down a law that makes it a crime to refuse a police officer’s request for help. (The Sacramento Bee)
For most of history, getting rid of refuse was a simple matter of finding a hole and tossing the trash inside. (The Southwest Times)
The population at large must also be told to cover their water containers, storage tanks and bottles and to get rid of refuse like plastic bags, cans and tyres dumped outside homes. (The Express Tribune)