-ic/-ical words

There is no rule or consistent pattern governing the formation of adjectives ending in -ic and -ical. Some -ic words are preferred over their -ical counterparts (e.g., ironic over ironical), and some –ical words are preferred over their -ic counterparts (e.g., metaphorical over metaphoric, alphabetical over alphabetic). Still other -ic and -ical pairs have differentiated over time and now have different meanings. Historic and historical, for instance, have different definitions, as do periodic and periodicalclassic and classical, and economic and economical.

When you’re in doubt about which form is preferred or whether an -ic/-ical word pair has differentiated, the only way to know for sure is to check a dictionary or other reference source.

For more information on specific –ic/-ical word pairs, click below. 

Comments

  1. PonderThis2 says:

    It seems from my school days that -ic indicates a cyclical pattern whereas -ical indicates involved with a particular or as a subset of that pattern; i.e. “historic” – as in the pattern of history/ies; “historical” – as in being involved with “historic” patterns. Thus the meanings are not really interchangeable for any of these word pairs.

    “Idiomatic” would, thus, indicate the pattern of usage of idioms, whereas, “idiomatical” (not typically heard) would relate to an expressions involvement “idiomatic” usage. “Metaphoric” would relate to the pattern of usage of metaphors, whereas, “metaphorical” would, again, mean the usage of a phrase in such a pattern of speech. “Alphabetic” refers to the pattern the alphabet itself as a guide; “alphabetical” means to use that pattern in ordering named items.

    The fact that individuals interchange the usage of some of the phrases does not change the root meanings; it simply indicates a lack of understanding of the grammatical separations, and perhaps an imitation of what they have heard or think they have heard in regard to these words.

  2. Don’t forget also “fantastic vs. fantastical.” While “fantastic” is tantamount to “excellent,” “wonderful,” or even “agreeable,” “fantastical” instead denotes something from the world of fantasy (as in the imagination). Ironically, neither of these denotations is terribly close to their shared origin in the Greek verb φαντάζω (and its allied noun φαντασία), both of which have to do with showing/appearance/making something known.

  3. grammar maven says:
  4. Brian Davis says:

    acoustic vs. acoustical
    acoustic, when referring to guitars, as in “his acoustic guitar, not his electric guitar”
    acoustical, when referring to physics of sound, as in “the unique acoustical properties of the room”

  5. Hi,
    Considering this series of words, I have a hard time (as a non-native speaker) making a difference between symbolic and symbolical or ironic and ironical. Is it an attributive/predicative kind of difference?
    I’ll appreciate any help you guys can give me on the subject.

  6. mosesturner says:

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  9. mosesturner says:

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    卐卐卐卐

  18. mosesturner says:

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