The use of said as an adjective meaning aforementioned comes from legal and business writing, and it's essentially a briefer replacement of words like aforementioned and aforesaid. Although replacing a long word with a short one is usually a good thing, in this case the shorter word can sound funny to people who are not used to legal and business writing. Plus, said when used this way would often bear outright removal. In these examples, said serves no purpose and could be removed: The said … [Read more...]

Saccharin vs. saccharine

Saccharin, with no e, refers to a white crystal powder used as a calorie-free sweetener. It is always a noun. Saccharine, meaning (1) sweet, (2) cloyingly sweet, or (3) excessively sentimental, is always an adjective. The words are pronounced alike, but that e is pivotal in writing. Examples Saccarin He offered the example of saccharin, a sweetener often used in coffee that until recently also appeared on the federal list of substances regarded as toxic waste. [NY Times] EPA removed … [Read more...]

Rock ‘n’ roll, rock and roll, rock’n’roll, etc.

Rock 'n' roll is the most common spelling for the genre of music, but rock-and-roll, rock and roll, rock-'n'- roll, rock & roll, and rock'n'roll also appear often. Rock 'n' roll has a breezy and colloquial look that reflects the spirit of the music, while rock-and-roll and rock and roll are a little more formal. In any case, there is no right or wrong way to write the term, though rock 'n' roll is the most common version and hence the safest. Examples Rock 'n' roll Today marks the 52nd … [Read more...]

Emigrate vs. immigrate

To immigrate is to settle in a new country or region. To emigrate is to leave a native country or region to settle elsewhere. Obviously the words are closely related and similar enough to elicit confusion, but they're easy to remember if you think of immigrating as arriving and emigrating as leaving. For example, someone who grew up in France and now lives in Spain emigrated from France and immigrated to Spain. Immigrate is usually followed by to, and emigrate is usually followed by from. The … [Read more...]

Riff vs. rift

A riff is (1) a short, rhythmic phrase played on an instrument, especially in jazz, blues, or rock music, or (2) a clever or inventive spoken commentary. The word also works as a verb, usually followed by the preposition on, meaning to make a clever or inventive spoken commentary. A rift is (1) a narrow fissure, or (2) a break in friendly relations. As a verb (very rarely used), rift means to split open. Examples You may have heard a bracing guitar riff from Gang of Four's Andy Gill on TV … [Read more...]

Dispense with vs. dispose of

The phrasal verbs dispense with and dispose of are synonymous in some of their uses, but there are other senses in which they're separate. The phrases are also interesting in that dispense with and dispose of are quite different from their one-word equivalents, dispense and dispose. Dispose of Dispose of has a few meanings: (1) to attend to; (2) to part with, as by selling; (3) to get rid of, usually by throwing out; and (4) to kill or destroy. The third sense, as used in the following … [Read more...]

Sleight of hand

Sleight is an old noun meaning deftness, dexterity, cunning, or a trick. The word is preserved primarily in the idiom sleight of hand deftness of the hand or a trick of the hand, depending on which sense of sleight we use. There are literal sleights of hand---for example, card tricks---but the term is more often used metaphorically to refer to instances of trickery, craftiness, or deception. The idiom is often misspelled slight of hand, which, taken literally, might describe someone who has … [Read more...]

Disburse vs. disperse

To disburse is to pay out or to expend funds. Without exception the word relates to money. To disperse is to scatter or to cause to vanish. It is possible for money to be dispersed, but that's usually a bad thing; money that is paid out or expended for a given purpose is disbursed. Disburse's corresponding noun is disbursement, not disbursal. Disperse's corresponding noun is dispersal, not dispersement. Examples The words are often mixed up---for example As Greece waits for its euro-region … [Read more...]

First-world, third-world

The terms third-world and first-world are often potentially offensive code words. Except where their original meanings are meant, they are best avoided in formal communication and in texts meant for diverse audiences. When coined in the 1950s, First World denoted the Western democracies and countries aligned with them, Second World denoted the Soviet Union and its allies, and Third World referred to all nations not aligned with either side. But today these terms' original senses are … [Read more...]


Notwithstanding is mainly a preposition meaning in spite of. Most dictionaries also list it as an adverb meaning nevertheless, but this sense is rarely used in modern English. Notwithstanding is always one word, and this has been the standard spelling for many centuries. Although notwithstanding usually means exactly the same as in spite of, it is often positioned differently. In spite of always comes before its object---e.g., "In spite of your feedback, I'm not changing anything." … [Read more...]

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