Stained glass

The term for glass colored with pigments is stained glass, not stain glass. Stained here is a participial adjective modifying the noun glass. Stain doesn't function as an adjective, so it can't modify glass. Examples When it's a phrasal adjective preceding the noun it modifies (almost always window), the phrase has a hyphen between stained and glass---for example: Judge Robert Main Jr. on Thursday unveiled a stained-glass map of Saranac Lake that he commissioned. [The Adirondack Daily … [Read more...]

Assail vs. assault

Assail and assault share several definitions, including (1) to attack with or as if with violent blows, (2) to attack verbally, and (3) to beset. They are often used interchangeably, and they even share an origin---the Old French asilir (which in turn comes from Latin)---but there are subtle differences in usage: assail rarely refers to violence, instead referring to verbal attacks, while assault is usually harsher and often does refer to violence. Somewhat confusingly, assailant, the noun … [Read more...]

Among vs. amongst

Amongst is a variant of among. There is no difference between them. While amongst is fairly common---though still rare compared to among---in British, Australian, and Canadian English, it is rare in American English and may even have an archaic ring. The -st at the end of amongst is a holdover from a period of English in which s sounds were added to words (usually nouns) to make adverbs. Other examples of words inflected this way include always, once, whence, and unawares, and there are a few … [Read more...]

Soldiers, marines, airmen, sailors

United States Marines don't like to be called soldiers. Unless you wish to cause mild offense, refer to them as Marines (usually capitalized). Members of the U.S. Army and National Guard are soldiers. Members of the Air Force are airmen. Members of the Navy are sailors. Examples Among active-duty Army soldiers, there were 156 potential suicides in 2010, down slightly from 162 in 2009. [USA Today] A former Marine from Pinehurst has filed a $16 million federal lawsuit against the government. … [Read more...]

Troop vs. troupe

As a noun, troop means (1) a group of people, animals or things, (2)  a group of soldiers, or (3) a great many. As a verb, it means to move in a group or as a crowd. The meaning of troupe is much narrower. It denotes a company or group of actors, singers, or dancers.  Examples These writers use troop correctly: Not all troops and troop leaders, however, welcomed the Colorado decision. [Huffington Post] Thousands of Minnesota soldiers are preparing for the state's second largest troop … [Read more...]

Client vs. customer

The nouns client and customer are sometimes used interchangeably---especially by businesses seeking to show customers extra respect by referring to them as "clients"---but the words differ in their conventional definitions. Client A client is someone who engages the services of a professional. For example, lawyers, plumbers, freelance writers, accountants, and web designers often work for clients. So these writers use the word well: Provincial court Judge Brian Stevenson agreed with defence … [Read more...]

Illegible vs. unreadable

Although the adjectives illegible and unreadable both refer to texts that can't be read, their conventional uses are different. Illegible refers to texts that can't be read due to bad handwriting, physical deterioration, or any other issue that makes the words difficult to decipher. So these writers use illegible in the conventional sense: Have you ever noticed that 'creative types' seem to have a similar handwriting; doctors, their illegible scrawl; mathematicians, their small and steady … [Read more...]

Criteria, criterion

Traditionally, criteria is plural, and criterion is singular. These reflect the Latin forms. Although most dictionaries and usage authorities still make this distinction, criterion is likely to go the way of datum and agendum (which are only used by small groups of English speakers). That is, criterion will become rarer and rarer, while criteria will become the singular form (with criterias perhaps emerging as the plural). Already this is happening. In current news publications and popular … [Read more...]

Precede vs. proceed

To precede is to go before, to be in front of, or to preface. Proceed, by far the more common of the two words, means to go forward, to continue, or to carry on. The words aren't homophones, but their similarity in sound (and sometimes in meaning) makes them easy to confuse with each other in some contexts. Examples Precede Thought precedes words, words precede deeds. [Guardian] Depression is a robust predictor of stroke, even independently of memory impairments that might precede a … [Read more...]

Ad hoc

Ad hoc, a loanword from Latin (where it means, literally, to this), means for this specific purpose. It usually functions as an adjective preceding the noun it modifies---for example: Every inch of green grass outside the mall had been transformed into ad hoc parking lots. [Dallas Morning News] An ad hoc committee voted unanimously Wednesday to recommend the city implement cell phone restrictions in school zones. [Amarillo Globe-News] Bagley is the chief transportation planner for … [Read more...]

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