Financer vs. financier

A financer is someone who provides money for a particular undertaking. A financier is a person or organization whose business is providing, investing, or lending money. In other words, a financier makes a habit of financing, while a financer might do it only once or occasionally. Some dictionaries don't list financer---and your spell check might disapprove of it---but this is a mistake. As long as finance is a verb, and as long as some people who finance things aren't financiers, there will … [Read more...]


The German loanword schadenfreude is a recent addition to the English language, but its meaning is so simple and its concept so universal that it's probably going to stay. Plus, there is no corresponding English word. Simply defined, schadenfreude is pleasure derived from others' misfortune. It is most often used in reference to the misfortunes of someone who is privileged or has been exceptionally fortunate in the past, but it doesn't have to be used this way. Like most newly arrived … [Read more...]

But vs. yet

As conjunctions, but and yet are interchangeable. One is often substituted for the other to avoid repetition, as in this sentence: Many, many people here share these thoughts, yet nobody can say anything. But I'm saying something. [Chatoyant Crumbs] This has the same meaning as, Many, many people here share these thoughts, [but] nobody can say anything. [Yet] I'm saying something. Using one or the other in both spots would also create the same meaning, but it might sound repetitive. As … [Read more...]


Right-of-way, referring to the right for one person or vehicle to pass before another, is usually hyphenated in North American writing, but leaving it unhyphenated is not a serious mistake. Outside North America, it tends to go unhyphenated. … [Read more...]

Et cetera (etc.)

Et cetera, usually abbreviated etc., comes from the Latin et, meaning and, and cetera, meaning the rest. So et cetera literally means and the rest. Overuse  Etc. is best reserved for times when (a) there is no question of what's being omitted, or (b) when listing every item in a large group would be unnecessary. In this example, there's no mystery about what etc. indicates: All non-human primates---monkeys, gorillas, chimpanzees, etc.---exhibit some form of tool use. And in this example, the … [Read more...]

T-shirt, t-shirt, tee-shirt, tee shirt

Most dictionaries recommend T-shirt, and it is the form most common in edited writing throughout the English-speaking world. Yet t-shirt is gaining ground, and both tee-shirt and tee shirt have some adherents. Not one of them is considered incorrect, so while T-shirt might be the safer choice, the others aren't wrong. … [Read more...]

Flora and fauna

Because the nouns flora and fauna usually appear together---the phrase flora and fauna refers to the plants and animals of a given area---it's easy to forget which denotes plants and which denotes animals. Both are usually treated as mass nouns applied to large groups of things, although they do have plural forms---floras and faunas (which most dictionaries recommend over florae and faunae)---should you ever need them. Fauna Fauna, which comes from the name of a Roman fertility goddess, refers … [Read more...]

Deep-seeded vs. deep-seated

Deep-seeded almost makes sense in a metaphorical way (though seeds sown too deeply won't grow), but deep-seated is the term you're looking for. The phrasal adjective (usually requiring a hyphen) simply indicates that something is seated (in the sense fixed firmly in place) deeply in something else. The OED defines it as having its seat far beneath the surface.1 Examples These writers use deep-seated well: The work of deep-seated, sustainable change remains the hardest work there is. [Harvard … [Read more...]

Flesh out vs. flush out

To flesh out is to give substance to something. The idiom flush out (originally from hunting) means to bring something out in the open. Examples Flesh out President Barack Obama will today attempt to flesh out his energy strategy with the unveiling of a major new incentive scheme designed to improve the energy efficiency of commercial buildings. [Business Green] The prequel, which aims to flesh out Sam Axe's backstory, is set in late 2005. [TV Squad] Some of these poets and communities … [Read more...]

Ravaging vs. ravishing

To ravage is to bring heavy destruction, to devastate, or to pillage. The meaning of ravaging is straightforward, as it descends literally from this main sense of ravage. Ravishing is trickier. Ravish has two main meanings: (1) to abduct and rape, and (2) to enrapture. Ravishing extends from the positive second sense---it means, essentially, very attractive---and is generally not associated with the negative first sense, so it is unfit as a synonym of rape. Meanwhile, the form is best … [Read more...]

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