= with respect to. It is not related to or synonymous with appropriate.


sort of, seeming, seemingly, or in the nature of. It can be either a prefix or a standalone word.

Grammarist Featured Image V4 27

De rigueur

= socially obligatory, proper, or required by custom.

Grammarist Featured Image V2 75


Using it as an adjective is usually more concise than using it as a noun.


Port vs. starboard

Port: the left side of a craft from the perspective of one facing the front. Starboard: the right side.

French Accent Marks – Aigu Grave More 2

French Accent Marks – Aigu, Grave & More

French accent marks are stylish and distinctive pieces of punctuation, and they serve a functional purpose. For example, the accent aigu tells you to pronounce the last letter of the word, while the accent grave signals that you shouldn’t. In this quick guide, I’ll explain the meaning and usage of …

Read More


Grammarist Featured Image V5 2022 07 20T195036.025

Directional words

-ward vs. -wards In American English, the preferred suffix is -ward—for example, westward, forward, backward, downward. Outside American English, -wards is preferred—so, westwards, forwards, backwards, and downwards. But it’s not a clean distinction, and both suffixes are used everywhere. The -ward suffix may be placed at the end of any noun without …

Read More